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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2018 Archive

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“Loyalist Trails” 2018-50: December 16, 2018

Articles

The Loyalists Are Coming! The Loyalists Are Coming! (Part 4)

© Stephen Davidson, UE

On July 2, after spending the day "fixing the lines of some streets and measuring off some house lots", Benjamin Marston noted that a ship had arrived from New York with news that Port Roseway's settlers would be soon be receiving six months' worth of provisions. This was good news, but Martston felt that the Loyalists needed more than just basic supplies.

"The people here are suffering for want of a civil government, which, to the shame of government, is most scandalously neglected." Almost two months with the refugee settlers of Port Roseway had neither improved their behaviour nor the surveyor's opinions of his fellow Loyalists. And Marston's journal bore witness to all of the squabbles and wrangling involved in establishing thousands of loyal Americans in Nova Scotia.

Having laid out lots and surveyed Port Roseway's shoreline by July 12th, Marston conducted the long-awaited draw to allocate land to the Loyalists. Waiting for nine weeks to discover where they could establish themselves on 50-acre lots had not improved the mood of the settlers.

"They have left many out of the drawing who are equally entitled to a lot as those who have drawn." Some Loyalists, Marston noted, were trying to use the situation to make some quick cash. "They wish to engross this whole grant into the hands of the few who came in the first fleet, hoping the distresses of their fellow loyalists, who must {soon} leave New York, will oblige them to make purchases." Getting news of settlers in need of building supplies, "several vessels arrived from New England with lumber, bricks and provisions."

Marston was not finished his work, and soldiered on despite rain and complaints. "As usual, many are discontented because their lots are low and wet."

The surveyor had just moved his "office" to the island in Port Roseway's harbour when he received word of the arrival of John Parr, the governor of Nova Scotia. It must have struck Parr as incredible that he was about to step foot in a settlement that already had a population equal to that of the colony's capital, Halifax. The governor did not leave his ship until two days after it had dropped anchor into the harbour. Parr seems to have used the ship as an office where he consulted with the Loyalist captains and Marston about his itinerary in Port Roseway. Once ashore, he began to create the government structure that Marston had felt the settlement so desperately needed.

Among the five Justices of the Peace that Parr swore in on Tuesday, July 22 was Marston himself. Not a popular figure, his appointment may not have gone down well with a number of Port Roseway's settlers. But that was not the greatest shock of the day. Ever mindful of his political patrons back in Great Britain, Governor Parr decided to give Port Roseway a new name. It henceforth would be known as Shelburne, in honour of William Petty, the second earl of Shelburne, who also happened to be Britain's new prime minister.

The new name was not well received. Most loyalists felt that the prime minister had betrayed them during treaty negotiations when he did not compel the victorious Patriots to compensate the king's loyal Americans for their losses during the revolution. Tradition has it that the town's flagpole, flying the empire's colours, fell to the ground when Governor Parr made his announcement. Marston's journal simply notes "Day pleasant, weather warm".

At some point during his visit to the Loyalist settlement, Parr instructed Marston to create a township for the Black Loyalists along the northwest section of Shelburne's harbour. No records have survived to explain why the governor made this decision. In the absence of instructions from London, Parr may have simply been making up policy as he went along. If, on the other hand, the decision to form a separate Black settlement was based on white racist attitudes, the Black Loyalists did not perceive it as a move to segregate them.

Before Parr left the newly minted Shelburne to return to Halifax, three transports bearing 90 Loyalist families arrived from New York. Of course, this meant more work for Marston as they all had to be "located on house lots. I have nobody to assist me... I have the whole of this upon my own hands."

As he laid out lots for those he thought were the "last comers from New York" in early August, Marston had to "keep a good look out against speculators – people who get house lots in order to make money out of them". And there were also a hundred complaints submitted regarding "bad house lots and bad water lots" that if Marston were to satisfy would see him "moving people from one end of the land to the other." The town's more influential citizens were much more likely to get the house lots that they demanded. One even tried to bribe Marston with the gift of a seven-pound turtle.

August was such a busy month for "rectifying" and running lines in Shelburne that when Sunday the 24th arrived, Marston's journal notes in surprise "By chance a day of rest."

On Tuesday, yet another fleet of ships sailed into Shelburne from New York City. The captain of one of the evacuation vessels invited Marston to have a meal with him on board the Cyclops. But the surveyor was "too tired, too dirty, {and} too hungry to sit down", so Marston agreed to meet him for breakfast on Wednesday. "He may think me an odd fellow; he is welcome to his opinion". Over breakfast, the two men discussed the placement of the hundreds of Black Loyalists that arrived in the vessels that had accompanied the Cyclops to Shelburne.

On Thursday, Marston led Stephen Blucke and other Black Loyalist captains to the site Governor Parr had designated for their town site. At the end of the day, Marston received something rare in his Shelburne experience – gratitude! His journal notes that the Black Loyalist leaders were "well satisfied". Local politics interfered with Marston immediately launching into his survey of the free black settlement, but he was able to get started on Saturday. He had little way of knowing that Birchtown, the name the Black Loyalists gave their settlement, would become the largest community of free Blacks anywhere in the world outside of Africa.

The summer entries for Marston's diary conclude with that of Sunday, August 31st. "Dined with Captain Christian on board the Cyclops". No doubt the overtaxed, under-appreciated, and loyalist weary surveyor enjoyed spending time with someone who demanded nothing more of him than the hope that he was enjoying a fine meal.

Marston's adventures in Shelburne were far from over. Watch for future features on the Loyalist's journal in future issues of Loyalist Trails.


To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

The Story of Ezekiel Younglove, his Estranged Wife Sarah, and Family (Part 1)

By Hugh Cowan; revised August 2018

The topic of Ezekiel Younglove who is my 4th great Grandfather has been a mystery subject of mine for a number of years and as you read through my comments I hope you have the same feeling I have gathered. There are some things that have been misunderstood about his life and hopefully this will sort some of them out. This is an update from my previous article in Feb 2017 but has more detail – although it does repeat parts of the former.

Ezekiel Younglove jr. was born about 1749 in Morristown New Jersey, USA, to Ezekiel sr. and Mary Lyon Younglove. His sister Dorcas was baptized on the 26 Sep 1747 at First Presbyterian Church Morristown NJ. His father Ezekiel sr. was born in Massachusetts; his mother Mary Lyon at Lyons Farm New Jersey USA. They married 16 May 1746 at The First Presbyterian Church in Morristown NJ. This was the second marriage for Ezekiel sr. He is a 4th generation descendent of Samuel & Margaret Legate Younglove who came to Massachusetts USA in 1635 from England. Also on board that same ship "Hopewell" were the ancestors of Mary Lyon. Ezekiel Younglove jr. was born in New Jersey as the marriage of his parents and birth of his mother took place in New Jersey and recorded there, also sister Dorcas was Baptized there. These records are held by the First Presbyterian Church of Morristown NJ. Mary Lyon is a descendent of the Bowes-Lyon family of the Queen Mother Elizabeth.

We know that Ezekiel Younglove Jr. UEL of Thorold lived in New Jersey until approximately 1775. During the war he was a member of the "New Jersey Volunteers" which fought against the Revolutionary forces of George Washington. We have copies of an Official Order dated 4 June 1777 from Sussex Co NJ from the powers that be that his wife Sarah and two other wives of the rebels with their families be deported to Staten Island to be with their Husbands. So far we have no other information on Ezekiel between his early days in Morristown NJ until the 1790s when he may have lived in Northumberland Co. Pennsylvania. When the US Federal Census in 1790 was taken an Ezekiel Younglove was recorded there with a family of 8. We are also not sure if Ezekiel took his family to Nova Scotia like many other Rebels had. These may have been safe stop over locations for his family after the revolution before his push to Upper Canada; family members of objectors such as Ezekiel where not acceptable in their old Communities. In a letter dated 10 June 1793 he Petitioned the Crown in Upper Canada for Land. The letter mentioned his Comrades in Nova Scotia - seemed he would rather join his friends in Upper Canada. The letter was counter signed by about 20 of his friends who lived in the Niagara region in Ontario. On 24 May 1794, Ezekiel by Order In Council received 750 acres of Land In Thorold Twp. for his contribution to The British cause during the US Revolution.

Of all the Younglove's who lived in the US and they had lived there for up to 5 generations it seems Ezekiel is the only one of the entire Younglove clan who was unhappy with the idea of the 13 US colonies separation from the rule of English Crown. He was the only one I'm aware of to publicly protest by joining a group called the "New Jersey Volunteers". He spent 6 years & 6 months under a British General by the name of Courtling Skinner, fighting for the cause. There has been some reference to Ezekiel being part of the "Butlers Rangers" but that is not true - in his request for land he specifically mentions the "New Jersey Volunteers". The only option Ezekiel had after the Brits lost the colonies was to get out of the US and his quickest and best option was to take his family to Canada. They all became United Empire Loyalists, the only Younglove Family to do so.

I have recently received my Official entitlement of UE as a direct descendent of Ezekiel Younglove UEL.

Ezekiel's wife was Sarah (maiden name and birth place unknown; she may have been born in Northumberland PA) but we believe she was born about 1755 and she & Ezekiel married about 1775 - as you can see we know very little about her and she is still to this day a mystery. (There has been reference to her name being Sophie that is also not true, more to come on Sarah) They had 5 Children 3 female & 2 males, all of whom came and lived in Upper Canada, born in this order Margaret UE b: c1777 m. John Mclwian, Mary UE b: c1781 m. John Bowman UE, Dorcas UE c1783 m. Jacob Bowman UE, John Younglove UE b: c1789 m. Phoebe Osborn, David Younglove UE b: c1794 m. Sarah? & Mary Ann Baldwin. All the children were born in the US except David who was born at Queenston, Niagara and all 5 were allotted 200 acres of land as first generation descendants of a Loyalist. As you might suspect Ezekiel with the help of these 5 children produced numerous Younglove Grandchildren some of them are Bowman Grandchildren (another thing to keep in mind, read to the end.) All five of his children came to Canada and claimed their land grants. Both John & David served with Canadian/British forces during the War of 1812.

The land grants given to Ezekiel came in eight lots in Thorold Twp directly west of Niagara Falls - 550 acres on the east side of the old Welland Canal and another two lots, 200 acres west of the canal. The possession took place in 1798 and within a year they started selling their properties one by one and by 1810 all but three of the eight were sold (we were unable to find sale details for those three). All of the properties could have come into play during the 1812 war as they were so close to the action along the Niagara Escarpment and quite close to Beaver Dam, Lundys Lane & Queenston Heights, all major battle points during the 1812 War. (I have possession of all deed copies of this land).

(To be continued next week.)

...Hugh Cowan, UE, Assiniboine Branch

Book: Hope Restored: The American Revolution and the Founding of New Brunswick

Hope Restored: The American Revolution and the Founding of New Brunswick, by Robert L. Dallison (Goose Lane Editons, 2003). 120 Pages, 5.5 x 7.75". Softcover – perfectbound.

Few Canadians realize how close the colony of Nova Scotia came to joining the American Revolutionary War in 1775. Many Nova Scotians were immigrants from New England, including the Planters who, some twenty years earlier, had taken over the farms of the expelled Acadians. Between family ties and unrestrained privateering, there was much sympathy in Nova Scotia for the American Patriots.

In Hope Restored, Robert Dallison tells the story of how the British raised two regiments and sent their members to the area that, as a result, became New Brunswick, thus overcoming the groundswell and fending off Patriot attacks. These soldiers had two jobs: to fight the Americans, and to settle the land as a bulwark against invasion. Spem reduxit (hope restored) became their motto and the motto of the province they founded.

As well as telling the story of the Loyalist regiments, Hope Restored describes many Loyalist and Revolutionary War sites, some of which can be visited today. Among them are the Loyalist Encampment and Cemetery in Fredericton, Saint John's Fort Howe, and the MacDonald Farm Provincial Historic Park in Northumberland County. Hope Restored is the second book in the New Brunswick Military Heritage Series published by Goose Lane Editions in collaboration with the New Brunswick Military Heritage Project. At GlobalGenealogy.com.

Niagara's History Unveiled: The Early Years: St. David's

By Denise Ascenzo on 15 December

Tucked under the Niagara escarpment and mostly overlooked by many, is a small village known as St. Davids. Founded in 1780, when United Empire Loyalists as well as soldiers from Butler's Rangers ventured across the Niagara River to settle in the new colony of Upper Canada.

Many families settled on land in Upper Canada, without a clear title to the land or a lease or any security of their farms. The terms for resettlement were set out by the Governor of Lower Canada, (which included the Niagara region at that time) by General Haldimand (1778-1784) under the "Farming/Resettlement Program" for loyalist families.

Under the terms of this program, settlers would be granted land and provided with seed, ploughs and other farm implements. There would be no rent charged on the lands given, but it was made clear in the signed agreement that surplus produce would be sold to the British forces only and not to any other persons.

This was how St. Davids was settled in 1780. There were 16 families, Secords, Dolson, Stuart, Fields, Depue, Rowe, Phelps, Bender, Lutz, Showers, House, McMicking, Young, and van Every, 68 persons in total who saw a positive future and agreed to settle without clear title to the land.

Read more.

Borealia: Cabotia and Fredonia

by Amanda Murphyao on November 28, 2018

In his 1814 "Map of Cabotia," John Purdy proposed the name "Cabotia" for Canada. Since Purdy noted that any "future improvement" for the map would be welcome, I'll offer some updates. Working from John Krygier and Denis Wood's notion that "maps are propositions," here are some of the propositions Purdy offered on his map.

Purdy recommended the installation of a lighthouse on Sable Island; lighthouses were built there in 1872.

The "projected townships" and "immense forests" along the Ottawa River became rural Quebec and Algonquin Provincial Park, respectively.

While it is generally assumed that "Cabotia" is a name honoring John Cabot, Purdy's "Map of Cabotia" seems to propose naming present-day Canada after Sebastian Cabot in an elaborate note outlining his many virtues.

The "imperfectly known" territory and "country not yet surveyed" became northern Maine.

In his 1876 Geography of Newfoundland, James Patrick Howley supports Purdy's claim, stating in the very first sentence of the text: "Newfoundland was discovered in the year 1497 by Sebastian Cabot." In a footnote, Howley details the evidence for this assertion.

Whatever the origin of the proposal, it is funny to think that Cabotia (Canada) could have been the country to the north of Fredonia (the United States of America) if John Purdy and Samuel Latham Mitchill, respectively, had gotten their way.

Read more.

JAR: Putting a Price on Loyalty: Mary Loring's List of Losses

by John Knight 11 December 2018

The Revolutionary War took a heavy toll on Great Britain. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 left it not just bereft of former colonies but militarily humiliated, politically divided, and financially straightened. The cost of the eight-year war had averaged £12 million per annum and left the Treasury with a national debt of £250 million. In addition, Britain had suffered the near collapse of many of her most lucrative import markets. It would have been understandable then, if her government had turned its back on North America, reneged on its financial obligations, and drawn a line under all its former associations.

It was to the immense credit of King George III that they did not do so. Indeed George, a man for whom loyalty was a dominant personal characteristic, insisted every American who suffered financially in support of the crown should receive compensation. His Ministers, both at and after, the peace of Paris, fully recognised this principle. Frustratingly it proved to be a principle much easier to recognise than to implement.

In 1784 British commissioners were appointed to investigate the nature of Loyalist debts, but after sitting ten years were still unable to make an award, as when a point was pressed on the American commissioners, they retired, "and would not return unless a promise was made them that that point should be abandoned." Finally in 1802, a convention was formed between the British and American governments, by which the former accepted from the latter £600,000 in lieu of all the debts rendered as a consequence of the war.

Read more.

Washington's Quill: Brig. Gen. Samuel Birch and the Ambiguity of the American Revolution

By Jeffrey L. Zvengrowski, 14 December

In my opinion, one of the most interesting stories that began in an earlier volume of the Papers of George Washington is the career of Samuel Birch, a British officer who first appears in volume 20 of the Revolutionary War Series. Patriot spy Abraham Woodhull (alias Samuel Culper) wrote Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge an intelligence report from Setauket, N.Y., on Feb. 26, 1779, listing "The 17 Regm. Drago[o]ns Coll Burch" among the British regiments stationed on Long Island.1 Gen. George Washington received that report, and his guards would narrowly avoid battling Birch's dragoons a year later when the British attempted an abortive operation to apprehend Washington.2 Birch's effort to capture Washington was certainly one of the more colorful episodes of the Revolutionary War, but I am also interested in Birch because his career vividly illustrates the many ironies of that complicated conflict.

Lieutenant Colonel Birch of the 17th Light Dragoons had been a British officer since 1772. Timothy Newell, a Boston selectman, wrote in his diary on Oct. 27, 1775, that in British-controlled Boston, "The spacious Old South Meetinghouse [was] taken possession of by the Lighthorse 17th Regiment of Dragoons commanded by Lieut. Colo. Samuel Birch. The Pulpit, pews, and seats [were] all cut to pieces and carried off in the most savage manner as can be expressed and destined for a riding school."

Read more.

The Junto: Q&A with Nick Bunker, author of Young Benjamin Franklin

Q: Starting with his own autobiography, there have been many treatments of Benjamin Franklin's life. How did you approach the project when you were aware of this vast literature, and how did you attempt to carve out your own space?

A: Yes, library shelves are crammed with books about Franklin, but the literature is biased towards the second half of his life, and his achievements as politician, diplomat, and man of letters. The period up to age 40 has come to be neglected, and the same is true of his scientific career. This is because – for the most part – in chronicling Franklin's early life biographers have preferred to rely entirely on his autobiography. But written though they are with panache, Franklin's memoirs are really a sketch or an essay, not a rounded narrative. He mentions his scientific work only in passing and he skips through his youth in an episodic, impressionistic way. So I began by working my way through the autobiography, and Franklin's early writings, compiling lists of questions left unanswered, references unexplained, and incidents where other sources might be available. Then I went in search of material to fill in the gaps. The central question I was asking was this: just why was Benjamin Franklin so ambitious, and so energetic? In the 1740s an opponent called Franklin "an uneasy spirit" – which he was! – and I wanted to find out why this was so.

Read more.

Ben Franklin's World: A History of Stepfamilies in America

Like many 21st-century Americans, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Abraham Lincoln all had to navigate the world of blended and stepfamilies.

In today's episode, Lisa Wilson, the Charles J. MacCurdy Professor of American History at Connecticut College and author of A History of Stepfamilies in Early America, leads us on an investigation of blended and stepfamilies in early America.

During our conversation, Lisa reveals how and why early American men and women chose to remarry and form stepfamilies; the origins of the "evil stepmother" myth and the truth about early American stepfathers; And, what happened when blended families came together.

Listen to the podcast.

Loyalist Books

  • Ross McCurdy notes that the second edition of his book Book: James Matthews UEL, 2nd Edition is "in hand". 290 pages, some pix, some maps. Perfect binding 5.5 x 8.5 inches. James settled in Woodhouse Township of Norfolk Co. Follow the link for more details, price and ordering instructions. rwaltermccurdy@comcast.net
  • Elaine Cougler's Loyalist Trilogy - The Loyalist's Wife, The Loyalist's Luck, The Loyalist Legacy - are now available as audio books. They can be purchased on Audible, iTunes and Amazon. A good alternative for those whose eyes are not so good any more, or for those who spend a lot of time in a car.

Where in the World?

Where is New Brunswick Branch member Malcolm Newman?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • As women in early Virginia had no legal standing, they had only power of their voice. Examine the laws created and punishments enacted (such as "ducking") by men to strengthen control over their wives' tongues. See tweet photo; read blog post "Punished by Ducking", from the Jamestown Settlement.
  • It's time for a little cheer with "Songs of the Season" Explore our [Library and Archives Canada] music collection with their latest podcast.
  • Victorian Christmas Decorating, featuring Frosted Branches and Gilded Acorns. There's nothing more quintessentially Christmas than a Victorian Christmas, complete with mistletoe, tinsel, and candles on the tree. But there was more to Victorian holiday decorating than tinsel and candles. Just like us, many Victorians had a fondness for glitter and gold. Read more...
  • National Trust for Canada. Staff Picks: 9 Historic Places That Say "Winter Holidays". Every historic place has a story to tell. Besides telling Canada's collective story, some historic places serve as settings where our individual stories are written; they are part of creating memories and traditions.
  • Canada's History: 2018 Book & Gift Guide. Our 15th annual advertising section offers a wide selection of books and gifts for Canadian history lovers.
  • At the time of the American Revolution anesthesia had yet to be developed. Opium in the form of laudanum was used as a pain reliever. However, such narcotics were in short supply and more often a soldier made do with only a drink of rum to bolster their courage before surgery.
  • Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
    • 15 Dec 1776 British defeat superior French naval force at battle of St. Lucia.
    • 14 Dec 1775 Continental Army forces occupy Norfolk, Virginia, leading to its burning to deny British use of town.
    • 13 Dec 1776 Washington's hapless subordinate Gen. Charles Lee captured in Basking Ridge, NJ.
    • 12 Dec 1782 HMS Mediator defeats five armed American and French ships off Ferrol, Spain.
    • 12 Dec 1776 Fearing invasion, the Continental Congress flees Philadelphia and British Army for Baltimore. Anyone care to wager that the politicians end up in a tavern?
    • 11 Dec 1777 Cornwallis' forces stumble across Patriots on the way to Valley Forge under Washington, force them back.
    • HMS Rose raids Jamestown, Rhode-Island, burn ferry house at West Ferry & many other structures.
    • 10 Dec 1778 John Jay elected as 6th President of the Continental Congress, later abolished slavery in NY as Gov.
    • Col. Samuel B. Webb attempts to raid Setauket, Long Island; thwarted by weather & captured by British.
    • 9 Dec 1778 Virginia annexes all territory captured by George Rodgers Clark, naming it Illinois.
    • 9 Dec 1775 Patriots defeat British forces, including 800 slaves freed for the purpose, to secure Virginia.
    • 8 Dec 1775 Arnold & Montgomery besiege Quebec City, in a doomed attempt to bring Canadian provinces into the revolt.
  • Gravestone of Henry Oakes, died 1860, son of Loyalist Jesse Oakes and father of Edwin Randolph Oakes, Member of Parliament for Digby. Located in Fairview Cemetery at Digby, Nova Scotia.
  • 9 December 1755 - The first post office in Canada was established in Halifax. An irregular postal service in Nova Scotia had been started on 23 April, 1754 by Halifax stationer, Benjamin Leigh. By March 1788, regular packets service would call at Halifax.
  • Townsends:
  • This muddy snowflake is made up of: Lace aglets (c.14th-18th), handmade dress pins (c.14th-18th), bone button forms (c.17th-18th), pewter buttons (c.18th), mother of pearl buttons (c.19th), buttons (c.16th-17th). See other groupings of found object including a "Christmas Pudding" at @LondonMudlark Twitter page for the original, oldest & largest online mudlarking community run by licensed Mudlark Lara Maiklem. NOTE: A mudlark is someone who scavenges in river mud for items of value, a term used especially to describe those who scavenged this way in London during the late 18th and 19th centuries.
  • This wool hooded cape was know as a cardinal due to its vivid red hue. It was a popular garment for American colonists. By the latter half of the 18th C, it became one of the few garments that could be bought ready-made, available both in England and the colonies.
  • 18th Century Woman's overdress, hand-painted cotton, c.1760-1770
  • sack and petticoat, 1760-65; vibrant yellow silk figured with white florals; textile from Spitalfields, 1755-60; altered 1870-1910.
  • 18th Century Pierrot jacket & linen skirt: French 1780-90 The Kyoto Costume Institute
  • Brocaded silk fragment, dress weight, probably French, c1760s-70s; perhaps from a bodice.
  • 18th Century Dress a la Turque, over chemise. c.1789
  • 18th Century dress, sleeve detail embroidered & trimmed with floral details, British c1760's
  • 18th Century Purple silk brocade dress with lace cuffs. Worn by Sophia Maskelyne (nee Rose), wife of fifth Astronomer Royal, Nevil Maskelyne. Possibly worn on her wedding day on 21 August 1784
  • 18th Century men's waistcoat, 1755-1765
  • 18th Century men's waistcoat, about 1780-90, silk satin coral red, embroidered with sequins, beads and tinsel
  • 18th Century men's suit and accessories, 1760's
  • Samuel Parkman advertised "Winter Piece Goods" in the Boston-Gazette, and Country Journal, 13 December 1773. Available through the Annotated Newspapers of Harbottle Dorr, Jr.

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